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Imagine a means to store electricity as green hydrogen for the load levelling of national grids, while also supplying energy for commercial vans and heavy duty trucks. Fuel cells provide a way to convert hydrogen gas into electricity, but on their own they do not represent a solution.  The way forward is with hydrogen batteries, as the beating heart of the Smartnet™ dual-fuel infrastructure.





Several of the calls in the pipeline (some in draft form), that appear to be looking for a SmartNet™ versatile solution - at least in part - are listed below.


HORIZON-CL5-2022-D2-01-05: Next generation technologies for High-performance and safe-by-design battery systems for transport and mobile applications (Batteries

The EU estimates that an EU contribution of around EUR 5.00 million would allow these outcomes to be addressed appropriately, of a total indicative budget for the topic is EUR 15.00 million.

Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of a proposal requesting different amounts.

Type of Action Research and Innovation Actions (RIA)


Technology Readiness Level - Activities are expected to achieve TRL 5 by the end of the project – see General Annex B.

Expected Outcome: Project results are expected to contribute to all of the following expected


• Next-generation battery system technologies for electrification of a broad range of
transport and mobile applications (including road, waterborne, airborne, and rail transport,
as well as non-road mobile machinery).


• Demonstrating increased performances (energy density, power density, lifetime) and
safety of battery systems, to improve the competitiveness of the European battery industry
in the transport market.


• Novel design and process to reduce manufacturing, refurbishment, dismantling and
recycling costs of battery systems.


Scope: Batteries are key for a climate neutral transport sector, which represents around 25% of
the total CO2 emissions in the EU. The electrification of transport and mobile applications
require high-performance and safe battery systems. In particular, fire is a critical safety risk for
several transport modes.


Projects are expected to develop innovative battery systems technologies that will benefit
several transport and mobile applications, by significantly improving performances and safety,
as well as environmental sustainability and cost.


In order to leverage the full potential of the research ongoing in Europe at the battery material
and cell levels, projects should consider the adaptation of battery system design to novel cell
chemistries that will reach the market in the short-to-medium term (e.g., advanced lithium-ion
or solid-state cells). Enhancing the cell-on-system volume ratio and/or weight ratio will increase
the energy density and/or power density at the battery system level. More generally, projects
should consider new technologies (battery system materials, mechanical design, electrical
architectures, thermal management strategies, etc.) for enhancing performances and safety (for
example, novel lightweight materials with optimum thermal characteristics to decrease battery
module and pack weight and simultaneously enhancing safety; new dielectric cooling liquids
with enhanced fire-retardant properties; etc.).


Manufacturability and recyclability should be explicitly addressed, in order to reduce the
manufacturing, refurbishment, dismantling and recycling costs as well as the carbon footprint
of the new battery systems.


Furthermore, the projects are expected to develop and assess methodologies to ensure the


The projects should focus on the battery system level, i.e., on the integration of battery cells
into a battery system (e.g., a battery pack), considering mechanical, electrical and thermal


The integration of battery systems into larger systems of application (e.g., into vehicles) is out
of scope for this topic, but obviously projects are expected to foresee requirements of the chosen
use cases.


Projects should cover one or several use cases among the main transport or mobiles applications
(such as road, waterborne, airborne and rail transport, as well as non-road mobile machinery
and industrial applications), with the aim to maximise the impact on the European industry and
on CO2 emission reduction. Projects may consider the key performance indicators proposed by
Batteries Europe or by the dedicated Partnerships, reflected in the Partnership Strategic
Research Agenda (SRA), to guide the technology developments on the application segments
and use cases that will be selected. Some of the project results can also be relevant for stationary
energy storage applications.


This topic implements the co-programmed European Partnership on ‘Towards a competitive
European industrial battery value chain for stationary applications and e-mobility’.






• HORIZON-CL5-2021-D2-01-08: Emerging technologies for a climate neutral Europe


HORIZON-CL5-2021-D3-01-05: Energy Sector Integration: Integrating and combining energy systems to a cost-optimised and flexible energy system of systems


• HORIZON-CL5-2021-D5-01-01: Nextgen vehicles


• HORIZON-CL5-2021-D5-01-03: System approach to achieve optimised Smart EV Charging and V2G flexibility in mass-deployment conditions (2ZERO)


HORIZON-CL5-2021-D6-01-06: Framework for better coordination of large-scale demonstration pilots in Europe and EU-wide knowledge base (CCAM Partnership)


• HORIZON-CL5-2021-D6-01-08: New delivery methods and business/operating models to green the last mile and optimise road transport


• HORIZON-CL5-2022-D2-01-05: Next generation technologies for High-performance and safe-by-design battery systems for transport and mobile applications (Batteries Partnership)


• HORIZON-CL5-2022-D2-01-08: Coordination of large-scale initiative on future battery
technologies (Batteries Partnership)


• HORIZON-CL5-2022-D2-01-11: CIVITAS 2030 – Coordination and support for EU
funded urban mobility innovation



If anyone wants to form a consortium for an application (as lead perhaps) we'd be more than pleased to contribute the IP and flatpack and Universal Cartridge designs, on confirmation of funding grant. If commercial EV OEM car, van or truck makers joined, that would make a very solid consortium, though not essential, as the proposed Smartnet™ system is dual fuel, as well as load levelling - an international hydrogen and electricity supply network.













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